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IX.22-24 Notes


Quamquam: As a sentence connnective, quamquam means And yet.

loquor: This is, of course, the crucial question for the understanding of the First Catilinarian.  It arises here because Cicero has all but commanded Catiline out of the city:  he has represented the silent will of the Senate as Catilines exile.  What is left to do, but act?  Now, Cicero must explain why it is that he will not act and the reason becomes his prescience of Catilines plans.  

Te: The emphasis on te and tu (when the repeated word appears in more than one case it is a special instance of anaphora called polyptoton) in a series of possible but rejected purposes indicates that Cicero does not expect his speech to have any effect on Catiline.  Why would he characterize his own speech that way?  Partly because it shows how incorrigible Catiline is, but partly, as well, to absolve Cicero of any accusation that he acted cruelly or regie in expelling Catiline.

ulla res: All possible purposes that pertain to Catiline's behavior and any effect that the speech might have on Catiline are rejected.

frangat: either humble or break your resolution.  The verb is a present subjunctive in a purpose clause which is dependent upon an elipted verb:  loquorne ut ...?  = "Am I speaking in order that ....?"

teenclitic to umquam and emphasizing it; in other words, Cicero claims that, so far as Catiline is concerned, the answer to Quo usque tandem is in perpetuum.

iste usually points at what is already in the possession of the addressee; here, it refers to the intention Catiline would have if the gods were to grant Ciceros wish.

mentem: mens = both the mind that forms an intention and the intention formed.  Cp. English, I gotta a mind to whop you long side a de head.

duint: An archaic 3rd person plural present subjunctive of the verb do, dare.  After utinam, the subjunctive is an optative subjunctive.

tametsi video: Ciceros foreknowledge of the dangers he faces is introduced here. 

mea: Emphatic, my words (and no one elses)

perterritus:  The participle give the reason for Catiline's imagined decision to go into exile; it is therefore "causal".  Consider the various way you may translate the participle:  what is the most idiomatic?

ire:  The phrase animum induco means to make a plan and so takes an infinitive as its object.

induxeris: The verb of the conclusion, impendeat, tells you that the verbs of this condition are in the subjunctive.  Here, the perfect subjunctive + the present subjunctive creates a should-would condition (that is, present potential).

tempestas:   storm is a common metaphor for political troubles both personal and statewide.

invidiae: A genitive of material, that is, a storm consisting in hatred.  Since the genitive case turns invidia into an adjective, you might just translate a hateful/hatefilled storm.

nobis:  Clearly this is a Dative of Disadvantage, but you might want to specify it as a dative with the compound verb, impendeat.

si minus:  often if not; it looks forward to sed, or verum, or at (still).

in tempus: in + accusative implies motion towards and into; here, the motion is metaphorical.  The idiom is best translated as "for the present time."

scelerum tuorum: objective genitive with memoria.

in posteritatem:  The contrast that shapes the parenthetical interruption is si minus in praesens ... at in posteritatem:  if not for the present ... then/still for the future ....

impendeat:  Subjunctive in an indirect question.

tanti: Called the genitive of indefinite value it means, literally, but it is of such worth or its worthwhile.

privata: of or belonging to a private citizen.  The Roman view of the public life was such that a man who was not engaged in public affairs was thought to be deprived, privatus.  That is why we refer to the lowest rank in the American military as a private; he is deprived of rank.

seiungatur: Cicero has already claimed or even established that it is not possible to separate his own danger from a danger to the state. 

ut: Three ut-clauses of indirect command , depending upon postulandum:  to demand, and recalling the four ut-clauses above.

temporibus: tempus has many meanings in Latin:  time, danger, opportunity, need, and temple.  It seems to me to always mean something marked out.

is: The demonstrative often points to someone as possessor of qualities that produce a result; in this way it can be like talis or sic.

pudor looks back upon the vitiis tuis in there preceding; similarly, metus refers to pertimescas and ratio to temporibus.  Cicero here outlines the character faults (is es ut ) that are responsible for the impossibility of non est postulandum.

periculo: Specifically, legal dangers, the most common meaning of the word in Ciceros speechs, but also the dangers that will come from revolution.

revocarit:  Result clauses usually take the present or the imperfect subjunctive according to sequence.  However, when it becomes necessary to distinguish between a potential resulty ("He is so foolish that he would do that.") from an actual result ("He is so foolish that he actually did do that.") Latin uses the perfect subjunctive to indicate the actual historical result.

Quam ob rem: Connective relative in a common phrase of transition.

dixi: The gall of the man!  The answer to Quid loquor turns out to Ill repeat myself.  Of course, thats not what Cicero means; he means to assert that he is not afraid of what may come from his speech.

proficiscere: Repeated from sections 10 and 20, it will also be the final command Cciero gives to Catiline at XIII, 33.

inimico: An inimicus is a private or domestic enemy, one who acts contrary to your personal and political interests; a hostes is a public enemy, one who acts contrary to the interests of the state.

tuo: inimico tuo is in apposition to mihi; in Latin as in English, most apposition is predicative, that is it makes a statement that modifies the predicate.  Here, perhaps, seeing that I am your enemy (as you claim) would do.

conflare: invidia here is a fire, a conflagration (conflare); above it was a hurricane, a storm (tempestas).

recta: Consider this either the ablative of route  with an elipted virect vi  (a specialized ablative of means:  "by means of the direct route"), or another adverb based upon the feminine adjective (cp. alias, qua) meaning directly.

vix: This is not ironic; Cicero claims he will endure the verbal attacks of men with difficulty, but will endure.

feram: Subjunctive or Future indicative?  it can be determined until you come to the parallel, sustinebo.

vix: The repetition, as often, elaborates the original statement:  vix feram sermones becomes vix sustinebo molem istius invidiae.

iussu: An Ablative of accordance with.  This is a category whose most important justification for existence is that it provides an idiomatic translation for certain ablatives that otherwise would become some version of cause or means.

sin: In contrast to the si si above.  This is the rhetorical trick of making your opponents preferred course of action look like the very one that you want him to choose.  Often one uses this as a form of reverse psychology, but, here, I think that Cicero is providing Catiline with a dilemma:  neither of his choices are good ones and they are bad in ways he does not expect.

meae laudiDative with intransitive.

egredere: As with proficiscere, so egredere is repeated from paragraphs 10 and 20.

importuna: Here, savage.  The term means simply unsuitable; its color depends upon what the band is unsuitable for; here, civilization.

manus, hand becomes a band when the individuals act in concert like the fingers on a hand.

patriaeDative with the compound verb, infero.

impio:   In this sequence, Cicero returns to Catiline's personal isolation, his civic isolation, and his religious isolation.  Recall the use of the home and the homeland above to characterize Catilines civic isolation.

invitatus: As with the command to go into exile at the end of section 5 (non iubeo sed suadeo) so here Cicero backs away from the constitutional problem that would be created by an autocratic exercise of power:  non eiectus sed invitatus. The content simultaneously constrasts alienos with tuos, the former being appropriate for exiles, the later for conspirators, while it revises the regal exercise of power, eiectus, into a disdainful invitation, invitatus.

videaris: Subjunctive in a Purpose clause.  There is here an echo of the most famous Ciceronian clausula, esse videatur

Quamquam: See the first note for this section.

invitem: This recycles the original question:  quamquam quid loquor? now becomes quamquam quid ego te invitem?   The subjunctive is a jussive:  why should I ? 

a quo: Three relative clauses describe Catiline in terms (they are characterizing subjunctives) that suggest why Cicero should not invite Catiline to Manlius camp.

sciam: The structure of these relative clauses is a little difficult to follow, and Cicero makes it easier (for the Senators nodding out in the back row) by repeating the same verb in each relative clause.  This verb, sciam, introduces indirect discourse.

esse praemissos: The core is:  sciam:  [eos] esse praemissos a Catilin qui.

Forum Aurelium was on the Via Aurelia about fifty miles from Rome; Catiline took this road when he left Rome after Ciceros speech.  It took him along the sea-coast to Manlius camp in Etruria.

praestolarentur: The subjunctive is a subordinate jussive in a relative clause of purpose

armati:  The participle is, as most participles in Latin are, predicative.  As such, it makes an addition to the meaning of the predicate and can be translated either adverbially (answering the question "How?") or simply as another main verb.

cui: Take the dative with pactam et constitutam.

pactam et constitutam: The core is:  sciam:  diem  constitutam [esse] Catilinae.

aquilam: Reported to be the silver eagle that belonged to Marius.  Marius had repelled from Rome two attacks by the Gauls in 101 BCE.  This patriotic association leads Cicero to the confidence (confido) that the eagle will turn out (futuram) to be the death of Catiline (funestam).

confido: The indicative indicates that this relative clause is not part of the report of indirect knowledge reported in sciam.  In other words, quam confido, is like a parenthetical statement added on the spot by Cicero.  Translate:  and I trust that it will be .

cui: cui .. fuit:  the indicative indicates that this is another parenthetical comment on the eagle:  and at you home there was a shrine set up for it.  The point is that Catiline is appropriating the symbols of one of Romes great generals without any understanding of the difference between defending Rome from the Gauls and attacking Rome so as to avoid bankruptcy.  On the one hand, the eagle will be the death of him; on the other, it is a sacrament to him.  Catiline is already caught in the web of fate that the consul oversees.  The sacrarium consecrates a sacrum for a sacrum.

domi: domi is emphatic to bring out the fact that the sacrarium was really a spot in the Roman camp.  See next note.

sacrarium: Roman houses had shrines for the family gods, the Lares, and for other deities.  But the sacrarium was a spot in a military camp near the generals tent where the Roman standards were kept.  It was, of course, considered sacred.  Catiline is being mocked here because he has a sacrarium at home; he uses eagles that defended Rome to attack Rome; he does not see the hand of the gods in this.  

scelerum tuorum:  Probably best taken as a genitive of description

sciam: The core is:  sciam:  aquillam esse praemissam a Catilin.

ut: Ut is best taken as "How!" and this sentence as an impatient and mocking exclamation; in effect equivalent to, How could you live without it!  Thus, the answer to the question And yet, why do I invite you? is another question, How could you live longer without it, meaning that even the invitation does not affect Catiline who has his own agenda.

quam: Not a quam of comparison with diutius, but the relative to which illa was pointing.

proficiscens: Present participle describing the general circumstances under which Catiline would worship the eagles.  This is, of course, all fantasy on Ciceros part.

a cuius: The second relative clause elaborates the first, here to add to the horror.  Here, ad caedem prociscens is revised as ad necem civium, and solebas venerari becomes a altaribus impiam dextram transtulisti.

impiam: The underlying charge that will finally authorize Cicero to speak for Jupiter himself in the closing paragraph of this speech.