Formation of Verb Stems

Present Stem
In the 1st, 2nd, and 4th/3rd -io Conjugations: Root + long vowel

laud + = laud
hab + = hab
aud + = aud


3rd Conjugation: Root + short vowel




duc + e = duce

Note: The stem vowel of 3rd conjugation verbs is not just a short "e". The "e" comes friom a combination of "e" and "o", and is represented in some grammars as e/o, more commonly known as a schwa.




Perfect Stem
In the Perfect and Pluperfect of the Indicative, Subjunctive, and Infinitive moods the Perfect stem is formed in a few different ways:


  1. The suffix -v- (-u-) is added to the verb-stem: laud-v-, aud-v-.
  2. The suffix -s- is added to the verb-stem: carp-s-.
  3. The root is reduplicated by prefixing the first consonant, usuallu with a short e: ce-cid-.
  4. The root vowel is lengthened, sometimes with a vowel change: lg- (leg-), g- (ag-).